What Is a Stock and What Is the Effect of Stocks on the Economy?
A stock is a security that represents individual ownership in any given company. A stock is also known as a share. To acquire stock, an investor has to buy or trade on the stock market. Trading stocks on public stock exchanges has an impact on economic growth because it helps companies to use public funding to expand the business, pay off debts and raise capital.
Why Are Stocks Important?
Stocks are important because of two major reasons. The first reason is to provide companies with the chance of raising capital that can be used to grow and expand the business. A company can issue a certain number of shares and set the selling price for each share. For example, if a company issues two million shares for $2 per share, it can raise $4 million in capital. Raising capital in this manner allows companies to avoid paying high-interest rates and suffering debt.
The second reason why stocks are important is to provide investors with the chance to have ownership in a company and have a share in its profit. An investor can choose to purchase stocks that earn regular dividends on their value. This means the investor earns money for every share they own. Alternatively, an investor can decide to sell the share to buyers at a profit when the price of the stocks increase. For example, if an investor purchases 10,000 shares at $10 and the price increases to $15, the investor can sell the stock and get a profit of $50,000.
In the forex market, the situation is quite similar. The account that a trader has is referred as equity in forex trading. This account determines the kind of transactions a trader is doing.
What Is the Effect of Stocks on the Economy?
The rise and fall of stock prices can influence different factors in the economy. These include business and consumer confidence which can have a negative or positive effect on the economy in its entirety. Below are ways stocks can affect the economy:
Movements on the market
The stock market gets its volatile nature from the movements in individual stock prices. When stock prices move up or down, their volatility can have positive or negative impacts on businesses and consumers. Markets are classified as bears and bulls depending on the movement of the stock prices.
A bull market features stock price increase, which boosts economic confidence. Because consumers are optimistic about this market, they start spending more. Also, bullish markets see more investors getting into the market, which leads to economic development.
When stock prices decline for a prolonged period, the market is called a bear market and hurts the economy. Consumers tend to be pessimistic about this kind of market and economic conditions. Furthermore, reports on declining stock prices tend to create panic among investors. Few investors are willing to enter a bearish market and when they do, they invest in low-risk stocks. This, in turn, affects the economy negatively.
Consumption and Wealth Effect
When there is an increase in stock prices, the bullish market gives people more confidence to increase their investments. This leads to people spending more on bigger items like cars and houses. This is called the wealth effect, which is the way a change in income can affect a person’s spending habits and contribute to growing the economy. When stock prices drop, the wealth effect is negative. Consumers become uncertain and declining values of investor’s portfolios lead to less spending. This harms economic growth because consumer spending constitutes the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
Business investment is a major indicator of a growing economy. A business is likely to make more investments when the prices of its stocks are high. To take advantage of the high prices, companies issue IPOs to raise capital by selling their shares. Many acquisitions and mergers happen during a bullish market and companies can use their share value to acquire other companies. This increased business investment leads to economic growth.
However, when the stock prices decline, economic confidence declines. Businesses are not willing to make any major investments due to a decline in their share value or their inability to issue an initial public offering to raise capital. Investors shy away from investing in a poorly performing IPO. In turn, this leads to a negative effect on the economy